Diabetes mellitus is a set of illnesses that impact our body to utilize blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is an essential source of energy that keeps the brain, muscles, and tissues in action.

The underlying cause of diabetes differs depending on the kind of diabetes a person is suffering. However, regardless of the type of diabetes one has, an excess of sugar in the blood leads to significant health issues.

Type I and Type II diabetes are both chronic diabetic diseases. Prediabetes and gestational diabetes are two diabetes disorders that may be reversible. In simple medical terms, prediabetes is a condition where the patient’s blood sugar levels are not too abnormal to be classified as diabetes. And, unless proper steps are taken to prevent development, prediabetes is frequently the prelude to diabetes. Gestational diabetes develops throughout pregnancy, although it may go away once the baby is born.

What is Type I Diabetes?
The beta cells of the pancreas help in the production of insulin. However, for a person suffering from Type I diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks these beta cells of the pancreas. Since the illness is most commonly diagnosed in adolescents and teenagers, it was previously known as juvenile diabetes.

Secondary diabetes is similar to Type I; the only difference is that the beta cells are destroyed by something other than the immune systems, such as a disease or an injury to the pancreas.

These conditions are distinct from Type II diabetes, which occurs when the body does not respond typically to insulin.

Symptoms of Type I Diabetes

  • Urge to drink water every time or extreme thirst, especially at night
  • Irregular hunger even after eating
  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Regular upset stomach
  • Urination urges every time leading to disrupted sleep.
  • Unexplained weight loss and losing bone density
  • Skin becomes pale
  • Fatigue and lowering of enthusiasm
  • Vision problems
  • Heavy breathing or sometimes shortness of breath
  • Frequent infections of your skin, especially on the legs, also known as carbuncles
  • Infections in the urinary tract or vagina
  • Mood swings or unexplained crankiness

Etiology of Type I diabetes
The etiology of Type I diabetes is yet unknown and is under research. However, scientists believe that the pancreas’s insulin-producing cells called the islet, or islets of Langerhans, are erroneously destroyed by the body’s immune system in patients who have Type I diabetes. Other factors that are also considered to be the cause of diabetes include:

  • Genetics
  • Viruses and other elements in the environment

Risk factors of Type I diabetes?
The following are some of the recognized risk factors for Type I diabetes:

  • History of the family: Anyone who has a parent or sibling suffering from Type I diabetes has a slightly higher chance of acquiring the disease.
  • Genetics: Certain genes enhance the chance of acquiring Type I diabetes.
  • Geography: As you get further away from the equator, the prevalence of Type I diabetes rises.
  • Age: Type I diabetes can strike at any age, although there are two distinct peaks. Youngsters aged 4 to 7 years old experience the first peak, while children aged 10 to 14 experience the second.
  • Gender: Type I diabetes affects just around 5% of diabetics. It affects both men and women equally.

Complications of Type I diabetes

  • Cardiovascular disease: Diabetes leads to heart problems associated with cholesterol and high blood pressure. These include chest pain, heart attack, stroke, and heart failure.
  • Skin problems: The most certain consequences include rashes, carbuncles, and blisters. These are due to fungal and viral infections, especially on the legs.
  • Gum disease: Diabetics undergo gum infections due to too much plaque, lack of blood flow in the mouth, and saliva.
  • Pregnancy problems: Pregnant women who develop Type I diabetes often give birth early or have a still child. It also includes giving birth to a baby with congenital disabilities and preeclampsia.
  • Retinopathy: Retinopathy is the most common complication of Type I diabetes that happens in adults. In this condition, the vision is damaged and causes difficulty seeing very early in age.
  • Kidney damage: Kidney damage or Nephropathy is also widespread in patients with Type I diabetes.
  • Damage to the nerve and poor blood flow: Type I diabetes may damage nerves and hardened arteries. This will ultimately lead to problems with limbs movement and coordination. This also causes delays in wound healing and sensitivity in certain areas.

We know that Type I Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. However, insulin plays a vital role by allowing sugar (glucose) into cells for energy production.

Type I diabetes can be caused by a variety of reasons, including genetics and viruses. Although Type I diabetes most commonly manifests in infancy or adolescence, it can also manifest in adulthood.

Despite ongoing research, no drug completely cures Type I Diabetes. Management of diabetes emphasizes controlling blood sugar levels with insulin given as an injection, good food habits, and lifestyle changes to avoid problems.


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